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  2. Litigating the Rights of the Child
  3. Child Rights and the Law in East Africa
  4. Law Africa Child Rights and the Law in East Africa - Law Africa

The ACRWC incorporates the CRC's rights while taking into consideration the specificity of the African context, striving to balance the rule of. The ACRWC incorporates the CRC's rights while taking into and duties enshrined in the ACRWC, as well as the responsibilities established. No eBook available accessed ACHPR ACRWC African Charter African Child Policy African Children's African Commission African.

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No eBook available accessed ACHPR ACRWC African Charter African Child Policy African Children's African Commission African context. ISBN ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: EPUB, PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices; Immediate eBook. eBook (EBL) ACRWC. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC) was adopted as a way of promoting the UN.

Excerpt Abstract The 21st Century has experienced an immense youth bulge, meaning persons in transition from childhood to adulthood now constitute the largest interest group in most nations. In addition to this, youth face numerous challenges which governments are failing to find solutions for. Most prominent among the challenges are lack of employment opportunities, poor education and skills development, limited availability of social amenities and facilities such as recreational parks. The definition of youth varies from one state or society to another. In addition, various international conventions have defined youth differently. This paper traces the youth concept taking into consideration age, transition, categories and how international conventions articulated it. A broad range of sources of literature were used to develop this paper. Having a clear explanation of youth is likely to help develop policies for eradicating the challenges that modern day youth face and also effectively implement them. Keywords: Challenges, expectations, reconceptualization, youth bulge, youth concept Introduction This paper aims to discuss challenges and expectations in order to support initiatives that promote young people as agents of their own, and their communities, development; that shift the social perception of the role of young people in public life; that give young people access to influence; and to create a unique national intervention to develop a cohort of exceptional young people working together to drive public innovation. More than half of the world's population is under 25 years, the largest demographic group in human history. Demographic studies by Population Action International in its report reveal that percent of the population is relatively young and the bulk of them are living in urban areas. The Population Data Sheet report projected that, by , world population would reach 7 billion and that global south would be the highest contributor to this global population boom. More young people means more strain on local institutions which cause grievances, especially when expectations realistic or not cannot be met. Globalization raised expectations and apprehensions for the socially excluded. Young people are not adequately prepared to lead and advocate for peaceful change and if structures fail to give youth opportunities to voice grievances peacefully, the rational to react violently increases.

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On the other hand, others perceived child rights as a burden that increased workload and negatively affected the caregiver-children relationship. Due to the perceived limitations and burden that come with child rights, caregivers reported feeling helpless and unable to properly offer care but rather being forced to neglect their responsibilities of discipline.

Our findings support Ame, Apt and Agbenyega and Porter et al. Particularly, our findings imply that calls made by researchers such as Embleton et al.

Improved understanding may increase acceptance, reduce anxieties and promote pleasant relationships between caregivers and children.

Such training should entail skills for problem solving, behavior modification techniques, improving communication, and stress management. Additionally, guidelines for building positive relationships as well as teaching life skills, autonomy and independence to children will help promote understanding and cordial relationship between caregivers and children. The explanation for this may be found in Magesan [ 39 ] argument that simply ratifying human rights treaties as opposed to real changes in human rights behaviours increases aid received per person both in the short and the long run.

Relexivity The qualitative data collection techniques used in this study imply that the lead author who was responsible for data collection could have influenced how participants responded to the research. In view of this we took specific steps to try to create a welcoming, non-authoritarian, non-threatening and open environment as a way to encourage openness and authenticity. Prior to data collection the lead author paid frequent visits to the institutions to interact informally with caregivers and children, and through this, build rapport with them to try to reduce the potential power distance before the actual focus groups and interviews began.

Over the course of the two months of data collection, the lead author was careful to explain himself as ignorant in that field of work seeking to listen to and understand the experiences of caregivers who are experts in the care work in that context. It was observed that over time, the caregivers had become used to the researcher with some who had previously declined participation turning round to ask if they could participate, in which case they were included.

Nontheless the lead author was present during focus group discussions acting as a facilitator.

Litigating the Rights of the Child

It is therefore possible that his presence could have influenced the nature of participant responses. In order to reduce the impact that such possible influence could have on the data gathered, we held all interviews after focus group discussions with some of the focus group participants also taking part in the interviews. This was intended to provide a second chance to participants to confirm their stories, provide more detail or make modification in a private environment.

Limitations and directions for future research First, the present study used large residential institutions in Ghana. Hence the findings might not fully reflect experiences of caregivers in smaller residential care settings. Thus only views of caregivers but not children were explored in the present study. It could also shed light on areas of divergence in experiences of caregivers and children as well as provide ideas on ways to amend the challenges with implementation of child rights.

Third, only residential care settings were used for the present study. Another area of research would be to explore the views of caregivers in non-residential setting such as families, schools and hospitals in order to generate a basis for comparison with residential settings to ascertain how child rights are conceptualized and applied in these settings.

Child Rights and the Law in East Africa

We found that some caregivers perceived child rights principles as a form of control that limits their ability to deliver quality care services due to its prohibition of absolute parental control. This perception stems from the wide deviation of the child rights principles from Ghanaian cultural norms of child care. On the other hand, other caregivers perceived child rights to offer an opportunity to gain new parenting skills that are different from the cultural norms of child rearing.

To these caregivers, the new skills have helped enhanced their caregiving role to the children in their care. More than half of the world's population is under 25 years, the largest demographic group in human history. Demographic studies by Population Action International in its report reveal that percent of the population is relatively young and the bulk of them are living in urban areas.

The Population Data Sheet report projected that, by , world population would reach 7 billion and that global south would be the highest contributor to this global population boom. More young people means more strain on local institutions which cause grievances, especially when expectations realistic or not cannot be met. Globalization raised expectations and apprehensions for the socially excluded. Young people are not adequately prepared to lead and advocate for peaceful change and if structures fail to give youth opportunities to voice grievances peacefully, the rational to react violently increases.

In this regard, there is a link between youth bulge, war, genocides and terrorism. The study gives a clear comprehension of the contemporary youth challenges expectations and opportunities. Various youth concept will be discussed in the study such as youth bulge, and youth definitions.

One of the keys to understanding youth challenges and lies in understanding their physical, psychological, and sociological dimensions. The accumulation of empirical evidence has also resulted in a body of knowledge that spans several ideas to which this study supplements.

However, for many young people, the transition to adulthood is slowed down by several challenges which modern day governments have failed to provide.

The paper discusses youth concept on a complex basis ranging from youth definitions, challenges and expectations. The idea of youth or adolescence as a stage of life does not exist in every culture. Some sociologists and anthropologists believe that this indicates there is no such thing as youth - that this is merely a construction developed to meet social needs. Some believe that there is a stage called youth, but it is treated very differently by different cultures, and young people will behave according to the expectations of their particular culture.

Age has always been used as a yardstick for definition.

While in most cases there has been a wide argument on basis of classification of youth on children basis, this brings complications since the definition of youths is also distinguished from children. However the African Youth Charter, youth or young people are defined as every person between the ages of 15 and 35 years. In contrast to the above highlighted youth related definitions, De Waal a demonstrates that the definition of youth is a social construct, to the extent that a number of factors like space, society and time need to be factored in.

In most African countries the term youth is usually associated with societal roles. No matter how old you might be, if you cannot perform some certain duties, you will be still regarded as a youth. While marriage acts as a symbol of unity between two families, most African traditional societies have regarded marriage as a yardstick to determine maturity in a person.

Law Africa Child Rights and the Law in East Africa - Law Africa

This is true on basis of traditional age regimental systems where youth sleep in youth rooms. Therefore these various intermixed approaches to answering the question of youth, so do challenges exist. It is true to a greater extent that youth challenges which European youths are facing is different from African, American, or Asian youths. Similarly, UNDP, argues that the transition from childhood to adulthood which is marked the by rites of passage in the case of Africa, has been used as a referral point.

Therefore the above argument scales down the definition of youth as the period between childhood and adulthood. A study by Ellis, portrays that gender related definitions should also be factored in taking into consideration that boys and girls might be young in a completely different such that a universal definition cannot be coined.

There is a view that for boys, the world opens for them as they are deemed man enough to take care of themselves, while for girls the world closes and becomes a restricted space in and outside the homes UNDP, Therefore the world is said to expand for boys and contract for girls, which those with a feminist orientation regard as gender inequality UNDP, From a feminist standpoint, there are huge gaps which exist between male youth and female youth since male youth are regarded as pillars of development while female youth are just regarded as objects.

Talking about lack of clarity on the definition of youth, De Waal a posits that this has even led to ignoring their position in society.

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